DNA testing is used for a number of reasons. Some examples of this are prenatal diagnosis, tracing a family line, identifying paternity, and confirming the diagnosis of a genetic disease. DNA testing also includes genetic analysis, measuring the result of genetic changes, including RNA testing to determine if changes in gene expression have occurred, or by biochemical means to measure the concentration of certain protein molecules.
DNA testing may be conducted on a sample of blood or on a saliva sample. A DNA sample can be collected for paternity, genetic analysis, or prenatal diagnosis. In addition to this, other tests which use the DNA are prenatal testing, to identify a baby’s gender, and genetic testing, to identify whether an inherited disease has affected the development of a person.
DNA testing is performed by a DNA laboratory using a variety of methods and equipment. The DNA is extracted from a blood sample, blood clot, or saliva specimen. In the extraction of the DNA, a sample called the DNA extractor, a DNA polymerase chain reaction, or a molecular distiller is used. These procedures enable the researchers to extract the DNA for analysis purposes.
DNA testing is performed by the same laboratory, which will provide the results for the testing. It is important to remember, however, that each procedure is not identical. Results may vary among labs depending on the DNA quality, the DNA sample type, and the quality of the DNA extraction technique. As with any testing procedure, DNA testing can have a positive and negative outcome. A positive result can be a person’s ancestry or relationship to a person who may be considered a carrier for a disease. A negative result can mean that the genetic problem was not present in the individual.
Some of the most common DNA tests performed are paternity testing and genetic analysis. Paternity testing requires the use of a sample of blood or semen from a man to confirm if he is the father of a child or not. Genetic analysis can be used to determine whether a specific genealogy has been passed down, whether the baby is a carrier of a certain disease, and whether a child is genetically related to another person. Using these two methods, genetic disease can be determined and the cause of it identified. DNA tests are not 100% accurate, however.
Although DNA testing is often used in many situations, some states require a formal medical exam before the procedure can be approved. These medical professionals review the situation to make sure that all requirements have been met and that it is necessary for the procedure. It is important for individuals to remember that there are always risks involved when DNA testing and that some people may not react positively to the procedure. As long as you understand the risks and possible outcomes, your physician can discuss it with you. If there is a problem, a doctor can help you decide if you should proceed with the test.